RELEVANCE OF IMMANUEL KANT’S PHILOSOPHY OF TRANSCENDENTALISM ON IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MERU-SOUTH SUB COUNTY, KENYA
MBAKA, JOHN KARAURI
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Kant‟s transcendentalism which is a philosophy based on the synthesis of philosophies of rationalism and empiricism can form a foundation upon which curriculum implementation strategies could be developed. Effective curriculum implementation is aimed at supplying a country with well-educated workforce with the ability to think and analyze issues critically. This can be achieved by basing curriculum implementation methods on a sound philosophy which promotes studentcentered methods. However, researches have shown that conventional traditional strategies such as lecture method and rote learning are mainly adopted in curriculum implementation in secondary schools which have been blamed on relegating practical skills necessary for economic development. Thus, most of the learners exiting the education system at secondary level do not have adequate skills and competences to join the job market. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relevance of Kant‟s philosophy of transcendentalism on implementation of curriculum in secondary schools. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relevance of Kant‟s probing method, to analyze the relevance of Kant‟s experiential method and to analyze the relevance of Kant‟s experimental method on implementation of curriculum in secondary schools. The study was guided by synthesis theory of knowledge by Emmanuel Kant. The study adopted descriptive research design, which was complimented by the critical and conceptual philosophical techniques. The target population was 3,085 subjects comprising of 2,780 form three students and 305 teachers in Meru-South sub county secondary schools. Stratified sampling, purposive sampling, and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the schools, teachers and students respectively. A sample size of 357 respondents which comprised of 322 students and 35 teachers participated in the study. A pilot study was carried in two secondary schools in Meru-South Sub county, which were not to participate in the study. Validity of the instruments was ensured through expert judgment by supervisors. Pearson‟s Correlation Coefficient using the test-retest method was used to estimate reliability of instruments. A correlation coefficient of 0.78 was generated for the students‟ questionnaires and 0.82 for the teachers‟ questionnaires. The data collected from the questionnaires was cleaned, coded and antitative data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Analyzed data was presented using frequency tables and pie charts. The findings of the study revealed that Kant‟s probing method enhances learners understanding of curriculum contents and critical thinking skills. The findings of the study further revealed that teachers and students advocate the use of Kant‟s experimental method on curriculum implementation and that some of the teachers do not find Kant‟s experiential learning method relevant in the curriculum implementation. The study recommends incorporation of concepts of Kant‟s transcendentalism philosophy in the in-service courses for serving and aspiring teachers. The study also recommends that QASOs and heads of institutions should monitor and ensure teachers use variety of teaching aids in teaching to promote Kant‟s experiential learning and Kant‟s experimental method in schools. The study concludes that the recommendations made after the study would prove quite invaluable in assisting teachers improve on their methods of curriculum implementation.